Pak-Afghan Border: Hosting Unwanted Instabilities


The road connecting Spin Boldak, a town and border crossing with Pakistan, to Kandahar, Afghanistan. February 1, 2021. (Jim Huylebroek/The New York Times)

The road connecting Spin Boldak, a town and border crossing with Pakistan, to Kandahar, Afghanistan. February 1, 2021. (Jim Huylebroek/The New York Times)

by Hammad Baloch         20 October 2023

The Pakistan-Afghanistan border has long been a region characterized by instability, and the situation has taken a troubling turn in recent times. With the Taliban’s resurgence in Afghanistan, Pakistan faces an escalating threat from the Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan (TTP), a militant group actively infiltrating across the border. To address this growing menace, Pakistan is eagerly awaiting cooperation from the Afghan Taliban for more effective border management.

The Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan, commonly known as the Pakistani Taliban, has been a persistent source of instability and violence within Pakistan. This group has been responsible for numerous acts of terrorism, targeting both security forces and civilians, resulting in significant harm to the nation. The surge in TTP infiltration across the border has set off alarms within Pakistani authorities, necessitating immediate measures to secure the border region effectively.

Pakistan’s relationship with the Afghan Taliban has a complex history. Over the years, Pakistan has faced accusations of providing shelter and support to the Afghan Taliban, especially during their rule in Afghanistan from 1996 to 2001. Pakistan’s involvement in peace talks between the Afghan government and the Taliban has drawn both criticism and appreciation. Pakistan has played a pivotal role in facilitating negotiations and played a key part in the signing of the U.S.-Taliban peace agreement in 2020. With the return of the Taliban to power in Afghanistan, Pakistan’s relationship with the Afghan Taliban is under scrutiny. Pakistan’s historical ties and its role in mediating peace talks have created an expectation of cooperation between the two sides to address the security challenges posed by TTP infiltration.

Effective border management has been a persistent challenge for Pakistan due to the rugged and porous nature of the Pakistan-Afghanistan border, which spans over 2,600 kilometers. Many remote and mountainous areas along the border are difficult to monitor and secure. The Afghan side of the border has also faced challenges in maintaining control, contributing to the ease of cross-border militancy. The lack of proper infrastructure and surveillance has made it easier for militants, including the TTP, to move between the two countries. Smuggling, illegal trade, and unchecked movement of individuals have further complicated the border management scenario. The ongoing conflict in Afghanistan has also created an environment conducive to militancy, with militant groups exploiting the instability.

Cooperation between Pakistan and the Afghan Taliban is of paramount importance to address the rising TTP infiltration. The porous border and the complex geopolitical dynamics in the region necessitate a collaborative approach. The Afghan Taliban’s control over territories along the border provides them with significant influence and the ability to curb TTP activities. Failing to address the border management issues could have dire consequences for both countries. Cross-border militancy not only threatens the security of Pakistan but also undermines the stability of Afghanistan. It is in the interest of both nations to work together to secure the border and prevent further violence.

The challenges of border management and counter-terrorism efforts extend beyond the borders of Pakistan and Afghanistan. International actors, including the United Nations and various countries, have been involved in the Afghan peace process and have a stake in ensuring regional stability. Coordination and cooperation at the international level are essential to address the shared concerns of Pakistan and Afghanistan. Pakistan envisions a future where the Pakistan-Afghanistan border is secure and stable. The collaboration between Pakistan and the Afghan Taliban can play a pivotal role in achieving this vision. The long-term goals include the elimination of cross-border militancy, improved trade and economic relations, and the restoration of peace in the region.

As TTP infiltration continues to rise along the Pakistan-Afghanistan border, Pakistan eagerly awaits cooperation from the Afghan Taliban for effective border management. This article has discussed the historical relationship between Pakistan and the Taliban, the challenges of border management, and the urgent need for cooperation. The situation demands a coordinated effort at the national and international levels to secure the border, prevent further violence, and ensure regional stability. The collaboration between Pakistan and the Afghan Taliban holds the key to achieving these objectives.