Understanding Bharat-Pakistan Bilateral relations through Cinema

Bajrangi Bhaijaan; Directed by Kabir Khan, ‘Bajrangi Bhaijaan’ revolves around a Pakistani girl who gets lost in India after crossing the border and how she is reunited with her country and family with the help of Bajrani Bhaijaan.  Image credit: Khaleej Times; City Times

Abstract

Films are just like textbooks, by reading dialogue, songs and different situation depicted in the film explored a lot during its definite period and left few impacts on viewer. In framing our perception films play very crucial role. In South-Asian territory Bharat and Pakistan are two permanent rivals neighboring nations from their emergence after partition in 1947. Two-nation theory on the basis of religious identity was propagated for partition and till date these two nations are fighting instantly on various issues like Kashmir, illegal infiltration, cross-border terrorism etc. Both countries used to impose ban on bilateral relations, sports and films as strategic tool whenever mutual relations become tense and unstable. Beyond historical incident of partition India and Pakistan share a common history, literature and strong cultural bond. In this paper we have argued that films as cultural product could play crucial role as connecting link between two neighboring nations. Bollywood and Lollywood (film industries of India and Pakistan respectively) both produce numbers of movies based on various issues related to everyday lives of residents of both nations and connects millions of hearts too. Through films we can improve people-to-people interaction and peace building between two rival countries, we strongly believe it.

Bollywood

It is the biggest film industry in the world, situated in Mumbai, India. Films of this film industry, this film production activity has been given the status of industry very recently (1998) by government of India are very popular in audiences throughout the world, in Diasporas and local people as well. Bollywood, the name of Indian film industry emerged as a imitation to Hollywood, the film industry of USA. Nicholas (1946) in his book ‘Verdict on India’ called it Hindu Hollywood. According to Dudrah (2006), “the naming and popular usage of the Mumbai film industry as Bollywood not only reveals on a literal level an obvious reworking of the appellation of the cinema of Hollywood, but, on a more significant level that Bollywood is able to serve alternative cultural and social representations away from dominant white ethnocentric audio-visual possibilities”(Dudrah2006:35).

Lollywood

Pakistani film industry is known as Lollywood. Lollywood refers to the filmmaking industry in Pakistan. Pakistan is home to several film studios centers, primarily located in its two largest cities Karachi and Lahore. Pakistani cinema has played an important part in Pakistani culture, and in recent years has begun flourishing again after years of decline, delivering entertainment to audiences in Pakistan and expatriates abroad.

Globalization

According to Blackwell dictionary of Sociology (1955)-“Globalization is that process which affects the socio-political and economic aspects of the different societies. It has also brought changes in the area of music, dress and mass media at the international level with high speed”. Giddens (1990) defines globalization in following words “increasing interdependence or mutuality among different people and different territories of the world is globalization. This mutuality exists in social and economic relations. It compresses time and space”. And in this compression of time and space media products like films play vital role.

Ethnicity

According to Oxford dictionary of sociology “individuals who consider themselves, or are considered by others, to share common characteristics that differentiate them from the other collectivities in a society, and from which they develop their distinctive cultural behavior, form an ethnic group…ethnic nationality is rooted in biological necessity rather than individual choice. It runs in families and is believed to be an inherited characteristic. People are born into a particular nationality, which then determines their interests, sentiments, and sense of attachment to a particular nation (Scott& Marshall 2009:226).

Communalism

When political behaviors are organized on the basis of religious identity communalism emerges. Polarization of two or more groups with different faith and religiosity happens in such political atmosphere. Defining ‘others’ on the basis their religion and single out them with hate and discriminatory treatment communalism adopt its content and form. Communal behavior is harmful for shaping an egalitarian society.

South Asia

South Asia is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east. According to Chris Brewster, “India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal and Bhutan constitute the Indian subcontinent; with Afghanistan and Maldives included it is more commonly referred to as South Asia…there is no globally accepted definition on which countries are a part of South Asia or Indian subcontinent”.

Muhajir

The Muhajir people are Muslim immigrants, of multi-ethnic origin, and their descendants, who migrated from various regions of India after the partition of India to settle in newly independent state of Pakistan

Research methodology

This paper is based on secondary sources. Concern materials collected from Books, journals, newspaper articles and Bollywood feature films for this study. We have applied textual analysis method to elaborate central theme of this paper. The textual method helps researcher to gather information about those processes by which human beings conceive the world. A text is something that we make meaning from. Textual analysis is useful for researchers working in cultural studies, media studies in mass communication. So we have used books, contents available on social media, films, journal and magazines as text and analyzed their contents. We have applied this method in the present study to understand the content of different films produced by Indian as well as Pakistani filmmakers which portray better human relations between both nations.

Sociology of Cinema

Essentially and fundamentally sociology deals with that network of social relationships we call society. It is the study of man’s behavior in groups or of the interaction among human beings, of social relationships and the process by which human group activity takes place. It deals with all social behavior of all human being as a whole. When we focus on literature or art for sociological study, we try to find out how literature or art maintain or control social relations. Hence we look for a history and pattern and phenomena in the art, literature of films. Without these facts sociology of literature or art for that matter cinema is not possible. However sociologists have not given much attention to the study of cinema although they have written extensively on mass media. As for as “Mass communications research was increasingly concerned to measure the effects of the media as symptoms of modern society as a ‘mass society” (Brooker and Jermyn2002). By 1940s and 1950s mass communications research became the dominant paradigm under which popular culture came to be studied and the early sociological approach to cinema also took shelter under this umbrella of work. Early sociological studies of the cinema were organized during 1920s and 1930s; these research projects were financed by Payne fund. Objectives of the studies were to explore the impact of motion pictures upon youth (for example, Bulmer 1933, Peterson and Thurston 1936). Their particular focus was on the perceived negative effects of film in changing behavior amongst young people. By the 1960s new kind of evaluation and critics of films emerged in France and Britain. “For a short while there was a genuine possibility in the discipline of film studies and sociology to begin to share its analysis of cinema across aesthetic, theoretical and methodological lines” (cf. Wollen 1969).

By the 1970s close text-based analyses of film ‘Mushroomed’. In such analysis focus was on the language of films and less attention was paid towards developing an understanding of the context in which film texts were made and comprehend. According to Dudrah (2006: 22Dudrah) “when the social dimension was brought into theoretical analysis of film, it was not made through the application of sociological theories or methods but instead through the concept of ideology, borrowing most notably from Lacanian derived Althusserian approaches where the subject of cinema is considered as constituted by and   through the film text and is thereby caught within ideology”. Thus during 1970s film theory encourage a method based in structural psycho analysis rather than social contextual analysis and more sociological approach. Over the past 30 years film critic and theorists have been making attempts to consider films through sociological examination. For instance academic studies of ‘Jarvie’ (1970) and ‘Tudor’ (1974) made efforts to understand the social role and function of cinema. Andrew Tudor’s work ‘sociology and films’ published as late as 1998 is considered as seminal in this sphere. Beyond above mentioned attempts, the sociology of films has been restricted to in different journals only. According to Dudrah (2006),“Since the 1980s there emerged media and cultural studies as academic disciplines in their own right, so it has acquired an intellectual space for more complex and sophisticated accounts of text, audience and their social context where sociologically informed researchers have been able to contribute further to understanding of film” (Dudrah 2006: 23).

Further C.W. Mills’s Sociological Imagination (1959) and Norman Denzin’s two books ‘Images of Post Modern Society’ (1991) and the ‘Cinematic Society’ (1995) provided new ascent and dimension to the sociology of cinema. Denzin’s central argument in his work ‘The cinematic Society’ is about who is looking at whom and why. And how and why is it through cinema that particular kinds of representations about gender, race and sexuality continue to hold sway? According to Franklin Fearing “films afford an opportunity for the expression of the basic meaning inherent in the relationship of human beings to each other, to their environment and to the society of which they are a part. This is not limited to a passive reflection of those meanings but may be a dynamic and creative interpretation. The picture goers, whatever his level of sophistication, finds affirmations for his doubts, alternative solutions for his problems and the opportunity to experience, vicariously, ways of behaving beyond the horizons of his personal world”(quote in Deshpande2007:95).

Sociology of Indian Cinema

In India Literature on cinema began to proliferate quite early although the academic research on films began only after 1947. The credit for pioneering cinema studies in India goes to the sociology department of the Bombay University, where Ghurye encouraged students to study cinema. Panna Shah’s work is perhaps the first doctorate on Indian cinema. His analysis, that cinema shapes viewer psychology remains relevant forever. According to Shah “cinema is an immense force which by the subtlety of its nature moulds the opinion of millions in the course of its apparently superficial business of merely providing entertainment” (Cited by Deshpande 2007:95).

Since 1950, film analyses have travelled a great distance to the contemporary post modernist critiques in India, cinema and cultural studies have become inseparable. Many universities have separate department for cinema and cultural studies. Jadhavpur University, West Bengal and Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi in India and Frankfurt school in West are few such examples. Indian as well as western film critics also paid scant scholarly attention to Indian cinema. Experts like Pierre Sorlin consider cinema as a necessary format of social history. In England Rachel Dwyer’s work, for instance, proves that Indian cinema is an established subject in the west. Although the film studies began during 1950s but there has not been ample research on Bollywood cinema. Only by the mid nineties a number of studies began to emerge both in and beyond India. Pioneers of cinema studies in India are Rangoon Walla (1982), Ramchandran (1985), Thomas (1985), Dissanayake (1994), Chakravarty (1998), Nandy (1998), Prasad (1998), Rajadhyaksh (1998), Kazmi (1999), Dwyer (2000), Chaudhary (2000), Vasudevan (2000), Gopalan (2002), Ganti (2004), Kaur and Sinha (2005), Mihir Bose (2006), Dudrah (2006). Vasudevan and Chakravarty (2000) analyze the forging the national identity in popular cinema. Both link Hindu nationalism with the culture promoted by Hindi cinema, especially since independence.

Ashish Rajyadhyaksh (1998:76) highlights three phases in the development of popular Hindi cinema theory. First is concerned with the films of 1970s, commonly regarded as the well researched socio-political area, where India  as a nation state underwent a series of domestic and international crisis culminating in the declaration of national emergency by the then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi in 1975. Deewar (1975) was best example of this stream. Second phase is accredited to the formal entry of post colonial theory in the mid to late 1980s and the reinvestigation of the history of Indian nationalism that was opened up via a biography of the nation state. Upkar was a film by Manoj kumar conveying the message of nationalism. During this phase Subaltern studies by the scholars were conducted and interdisciplinary arts and humanities based works also came into light. The third phase is the opening up introduction of film studies in India through various post graduate departments this led to the growing acceptance of film studies in previously orthodox literature, history and social science departments. Consequently existing scholarship on popular Indian cinema has proceeded along the following axes as Dudrah (2006:26) explained:

  1. Audience identificatory processes (as Dwyer 2000, Mishra 2002, Nandy 1998, and Vasudevan 2000)
  2. Cinema as ideological apparatus (Kazmi 1999, Prasad 1998) and
  3. Film as a national archive (Chakravarty 1996, Virdi 2003)

In contemporary times scholars of Bollywood cinema have attempted to interpret its role in the formation of a national consciousness. This consciousness can be observed in dominant and subordinate Indian and south Asian sub continental identities in an uneasy and complex relationship. Such identities include the representation of religion, caste and gender; the Muslim minority in India; India’s relationship with its political neighbors, corruption in public life and so forth.

Indian Cinema and Muslim

Films related to social issues of Muslims are a sub category in the Indian films. These types of films were especially popular in the 1960s. Although Muslim population is ten to twelve percent of the Indian population yet these films have been very successful that means these films were appreciated by audiences belonging to other religions as well.

Bollywood is said to be a melting pot where all caste and sect barriers were broken down. This can be proved by the fact, although the partition of the India produced and bitterness and divide between the two great religious communities which constituted in the film industry. Muslim actors and actress played Hindu character and vice versa. For instance “In the film ‘Ram Rajya’ a Muslim played Ram, while the Hindu played the Ravana” (Bose2006:190-91). “For its cosmopolitan nature film community is popularly known as one of the most progressive, ‘multicultural’ force in the sub continent promoting inter-religious and inter ethnic harmony”(Dudrah 2006: 177). Many films with historical Muslim characters were made since the inception of the industry, for example ‘Alam Ara’ (1931), ‘Laila Majnu’ (1941), ‘Anarkali’ (1953), ‘Mirza Ghalib’ (1955), ‘Changiz Khan’ (1957) ‘Mughal-E-Azam’ (1960), etc. to name just a few which had Muslim character at the centre.

Guru Dutt and Waheeda Rehman starring ‘Chaudhvin Ka Chand’(1960) can be conceive as first film pertaining to social problem related to Muslim society. Abrar Alvi’s ‘Sahib Bibi Aur Ghulam’ (1962), H.S.Rawail’s ‘Mere Mehboob’ (1963), ‘Ghazal’ (1964), ‘Kashmir ki kali’ (1964), ‘Shatranj ke Kheladi’ (1977), ‘Umrao Jaan’(1978), ‘Pakeezah’ (1971) are another important films in the category of film related to social problems of Muslim society. It is interesting to Nate that after the release of the Film ‘Pakeeza’. In Pakeeza a Nabab family’s son brings his daughter born to unmarried prostitute. Later another boy of the same family unknowingly falls in love with the same girl and wants to marry which was not taken cordially by the elders. However in the end in the second generation male realizing his mistake and hollowness of family pride marries his daughter within the same family. Thus he breaks all the barriers of high and low. Although the film was hit but after this film the social problem of the Muslim declined ‘Mehboob ki Mehendi’, despite superstar Rajesh Khanna’s presence and good scores by Laxmikant Pyarelal, flopped. Then if we analyze the reason of popularity of these films then the credit for popularity of these films can be given to the presence of music, poetry, Ghazals and sophisticated exclusive style of The stories were often inspired by Urdu love poetry and were based on the impossibility of true love, love across social divides; love at first sight, love equated with divinity, love triangles. Muslim family dramas and traditional prostitute cum singer’s life stories dominated the plot. For instance- film ‘Umrao Jaan’ (dir. Muzafar Ali1980s), starring Rekha who played a courtesan dancer caught between the ills of her profession and love for a landed noble man played by Faroque Sheikh is better known example of this plot.

Since the early 1990s coinciding with the Kashmir rebellion, the destruction of Babri Masjid and its fall out, a transition has taken place in the portrayal of Muslim. “Now Muslim characters are portrayed as villain who become substitute of traditional villain (Khalnayak).The Muslim terrorist has increasingly appeared as a threat to India in keeping with changing political climate and the discourses of the country”(Deshpande 2007). Films like ‘Roja’ (1994), and ‘Sarfarosh’ (1999) and such other films helped demonized Muslim as anti-national. Following reasons are responsible for the demise of films with social problems of Muslim society. For instance – increasing marginalization of Indian Muslim since 1970s and 1980s singled out them from the Indian cinema. Along with The end of combination of music directors Naushad, Madan Mohan, Roshan, Jaidev, poets Shakeel Badayeuni, Sahir Ludhyanvi, Kaifi Azmi, Majrooh Sultanpuri and Hasrat Jaypuri, gifted singers like Mohammad Rafi, Mukesh and Kishor Kumar with exceptions were not forthcoming from the 1980s. In Hindi films increasing use of Hinglish has erased the space for Urdu as a language. Globalization and impact of western culture also played a crucial role against these types of films. Mushaira and Qawallis are no longer popular while the Ghazal was debased by pretenders a long time ago. Now due to increasing and expanding concept of ‘Islamic terrorism’ throughout the world Muslim are most vulnerable community in India in particular and world in general because of their involvement in terrorist activities in Kashmir and all over the India and their attack on World Trade Centre in USA. Therefore they are frequently portray as supporters of terrorists, so continuously facing the marginalization and are victim of suspicions. Worst thing is that Hindi films are representing them only in the image of terrorist, ‘who wear Salwar kameej, sport beards, carry AK-47 rifles and use Arabi scarf’. Bollywood wants to make sure that religious identity of the terrorist is not doubted at all by the audience (Deshpande2007: 98).

But when we see ‘Fanna’ a film released in 2006, the earlier image of a Muslim terrorist changes again when an urban play boy looks like next door, dressed in designer jeans and shirt could be a dangerous terrorist with ambiguous political loyalty. So this new image of Muslim terrorist sociologically broadens the definition of Islamic terrorism. This new image further reduces the discursive space accorded to Muslim making them more vulnerable to social ostracism, state violence and mob fury.

Nationalism in Indian Cinema

Nationalism is an ideology in which patriotism is a central social value and which promotes loyalty to one’s nation as a conscious emotion. Nationalism involves a sense of common destiny, common goals and common responsibilities for all citizens of the nation (Scott1999:270). In this regard in India and Indian communities around the world has a strong feeling of nationalism and Bollywood films based on Indo-Pak relations connect Indians on bilateral issues wherever they live. Benedict Anderson’s concept “long distance nationalism” suggests that a strong and nearly automatic allegiance binds members of an ethnic Diaspora to their homeland. According to Anderson (1998:74), “immigrants continue to feel toward their native land identical sentiments to those nourished in the context of “traditional” nationalism. The political positions of the “long-distance nationalists” serve to protect an ethnic identity that is threatened either within their country of origin or sometimes in the host society”. Diasporas feel affection on the basis of many issues like kinship relations in their homeland, religious and political concern to their countries of origin. Considering this feeling of nationalism in Indian Diaspora the ‘High level Committee on Indian Diaspora’ (2000) concluded that, “the Diaspora is very special to India. Residing in distant lands, its members have succeeded spectacularly in their chosen profession by dint their single-minded dedication and their hard work. What is more, they have retained their emotional, cultural and spiritual links with their country of origin”. Similarly Pakistani Diaspora is trying to reconnect and redefine bilateral relations between India and Pakistan from their country of settlement. Filmmakers in Pakisatni Diaspora are also attempting to partake in ‘celluloid diplomacy’ and contribute to the peace process between the two countries by producing such movies. “For instance, in north of England, Huddersfield-based Afzal Khan’s Paragon Pictures is keen to finance and make films that draw on film-making talents from both countries. Paragon’s second film Larki Punjaban (Punjabi Girl, 2003) is best example of such efforts done by Diaspora filmmakers of Pakistan” (Dudrah2006:155).

Today in the era of globalization the world is being more interconnected than ever before. Despite international borders and associated institutional or infrastructural boundaries of law and culture etc. people are forging connections across time and space. Now this dispersed Diaspora are becoming transnational ‘communities’. Thus overseas Indians appreciate Indianness wherever they live and maintain feeling of nationalism or patriotism.

Representations of Indo-Pak Relations in Bollywood Films

In India two things are very popular i.e. cricket and Bollywood films. When we discuss these two things in the context of India and Pakistan a different picture emerges in our mind. Whenever strategic relations between two born rival neighboring countries become tense, films and cricket face ban till next point of time when bilateral relations are restored. When Pakistani censor board and apex courts imposed bans on Bollywood films, a new debate emerges here in India to allow or not to allow Pakistani actors, singer, musicians and other artist to work. There  is a strong tradition of incorporating Pakistani actors, singers and musicians in Bollywood projects, Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan, Rahat fateh Ali Khan, Adnan Sami, Gulam Ali, Mehandi Hasan, Abida Parveen, Aatif Aslam, Salma, Agha, Zeba Bakhtiyar, Fazal Ali, Fawad Khan, Meera Ali, Mahira Khan, Rasheed Naz, just a name few. During the times of war, tension on line of control, breach of cease fire, I.S.I. and Pakistani army sponsored terrorism and illegal infiltration relations between India and Pakistan become worst. Incidents like terror attack on Taj Hotel Mumbai, Sarabjeet’s killing and recently highly objectionable behavior of Pakistani rulers and diplomats with convicted Kulbhushan Jadhav worsen bilateral relations between two rival nations. Among all such disparities when common citizens of India develop a demonized perception about Pakistan and support to break all kinds of relation between two neighboring countries, few intellectuals, writers, artists, playwrights and filmmakers express their different voices in favor of cultural relations. These people think that cultural relations and people-to- people contacts save a platform to provide a chance for restoration of better relations in future. Films, music, theatre, and cricket help a lot to maintain mutual relations between the people residing both sides of L.O.C.

It would be very relevant to explain here about an event which happened during Cricket World Cup in the year of 2007. In our hostel in Jawahar Lal Nehru University, New Delhi we were discussing about ongoing cricket world cup. One senior asked a question to a first year graduation student from state of Bihar, “if India could not qualify for final, which country would you like to win the world cup Australia or Pakistan? He spontaneously responded, “Pakistan”. Seniors asked, “Why?” He explained in following manner, “Sir, though Pakistan is our rival nation yet I would support Pakistan because it’s belong to our South Asian region, instead of supporting Australians we should support Asians”. That was the beauty of thinking of an innocent student of an Indian university. Millions of Indians thinks similarly beyond few ruling elites and radical groups because of their petty vested interests. All we know, cricket match are fight like wars not played like games and people celebrate with fireworks, yet few people thinks positively.

In this sequence well known Pakistani theatre personality Sheema Kirmani visited JNU with his group and presented a play based on the life of Sufi saint Bulleh Shah. In the end all artists of her group applaud towards university students and teachers “we love you” and in response audiences did not disappoint them and appreciate their effort and message of love disseminated by saint Bulleh Shah. These incidents are enough to prove that there is not only hate and animosity between India and Pakistan but respect and positivity also exist. Poets, writers, actors, musicians, singers and players are messengers of love and mutual respects which hold delicate string of bilateral relations. Few celebrated personalities across the borders are Faiz Ahamd Faiz, Iqbal Bano, Ghulam Ali, Mehandi Hasan, Nusrat Fateh Ali, Abida Parveen, Intizar Husain, Manto, Noorjehan, and Sania Mirza.

Bollywood films left comprehensive effects on Indian masses. If we categorize films with contents depicting Bharat-Pakistan bilateral relations we would find following two categories-

  1. Bollywood films
  2. Lollywood(Pakistani) films

 

Bollywood is world’s largest film producing industry and it has completed more period than one century till date. Before partition in 1947 both countries were part of single Indian subcontinent. Wratch writes, “The partition of Indian sub-continent in 1947 is one of the great tragedies which compel one to search for the larger meanings. Roughly a million people were butchered in murderous riots; 10 to 12 million lost their homes and became hapless refugees. Another feature of this violence was large scale abduction of over one lac women by men of other community. It was such a barbaric phase when people became temporarily insane, the absence of reason transformed kind, loving and rational beings into violent, unthinking, instinctive savages” (Wratch2017:293-294). People of both sides of the border retain those wounded memories in their minds which reveal in their hatred behavior. In such chaotic situations few responsible and visionary filmmakers and theatre artist play significant roles for the betterment of bilateral relations between these two neighboring nations. B.R. Chopra, Yash Chopra, Rajkapoor, Kabir Khan, Chandra Prakash Dwivedi, J.P. Dutta, Shyam Benegal, Aditya Chopra, Nitin Kakkar, Ali Abbas Jafar, Mudassar Aziz to name just a few who are continuously producing films with positivity and humanitarian approach. In their films people are just human being instead of Hindu, Muslim or Sikh and all these characters behave like common human being without prejudice mindsets. They want to forget their unfortunate violent history and journey on new path of hope and friendship. We would like to give a list of few movies depicting Indo-Pak relations on big canvas with great message of humanity-

Lahore(1949), Nastik (1954), Chhalia (1960), Dhool Ka Phool(1959), Dharamputra(1961), Garam Hawa (1973), Hindustan Ki Kasam(1973), Henna (1991), Sardar(1993), Mammo(1994), Naseem(1995), Border(1997), 1947 Earth(1998), Train To Pakistan(1998), Shaheed-e-Mohabbat Boota Singh(1999), Sarfarosh(1999), Hey Ram (2000), Refugee (2000), Gadar: Ek Prem Katha (2001), Pinjar(2003), L.O.C.Kargil(2003),  Veer-Zaara(2004), Bhag Milkha Bhag(2013), Filmistan(2013), Bajrangi Bhaijaan(2015), Ek Tha Tiger(2012), Sarabjeet(2016) Happy Bhag Jayegi(2016), Begum jaan(2017), Tiger Zinda Hai(2017) etc.

 

Since the independence of India and Pakistan, the Bollywood film industry has journeyed through various phases of political and military conflicts as well as diplomatic wrangling, focusing on the historical realities of these two countries, along with commenting and critiquing on their foreign policies.  According to Kamaluddin and Langah (2012:107-109), “Indian moviemakers use the determiner, who is a good liberal humanist and law-abiding Indian (usually a Hindu), fully conscious of his or her civic rights and responsibilities, and also makes others aware of theirs. This determiner is juxtaposed against the bad Pakistani Muslim. This construction of this binary of good and bad by using a determiner enables Indian film producers to construct the image of Pakistanis as essentially bad, cruel, irresponsible, inhuman, and fanatical. On the other hand, Indians particularly Hindus, are imaged as essentially liberal, tolerant, humanist, and peace loving. This binary of the good versus bad is one of the major devices that Indian filmmakers have used to construct Pakistan as monstrous, ruthless, inhuman, and demonic since 1967, the release date of Upkaar”. We have mentioned this long quote to reveal the perception of a common Indian which he gains through Bollywood films about Pakistan. This is the context which establishes the rationale of this paper. Few Indian filmmakers depict positive side of Pakistani people with humanitarian vision.

“Gadar: Ek Prem Katha” (2001) like commercial films which was produced considering political ethos of that period and psyche of the people. Hero of this film was from Sikh community and heroine from Muslim community. Story of the film was based on their inter-faith love story, at the outset of partition of India and Pakistan. I have personal experiences of that film inside the cinema hall and outside among public, people were so excited against Muslim and Pakistan that Gadar was declared a mega hit. Bhattacharya (2011:141) has rightly pointed out, “one of the great blockbusters of Indian cinema this was a big budget film marked by ‘catchpenny sloganeering and noisy melodrama’. It cannot be denied that it was the blatant jingoism of Gadar that made it one of the biggest grosser of all time”. This filmy style ‘virtual patriotism’ sometime provoke hatred between two religious communities. Beyond all these success formula and creation of ‘others’ this film also promote human relations between lovers of two rival communities, husband and wife and friends of these two communities and two nations that is India and Pakistan.

Chandra Prakash Dwivedi directed ‘Pinjar’ which was based on the novel of noted writer Amrita Pritam with same title which tells the love story between a Hindu girl Pooro and Muslim boy Rashid. During 1947, Rashid abducted Pooro in traditional family enmity. When Puro somehow manage elopement from his abduction, her family did not accept her because of fear. Disappointed Pooro returned to Rashid and they get married and settled down. In the background of Partition film ‘Pinjar’ depict emotional and complicated relations between two communities very effectively.

Diasporic niche audiences of India and Pakistan around the world are welcoming with open heart films with such content which promote and strengthen bilateral relations based on humanity and rationality beyond communal war and conflict. If we read contents of films like Dharmputra, Veer-Zara, Bajrangi Bhaijaan, PK, Happy Bhag Jayegi, and Tiger Zinda Hai as textbooks, we find that their dialogues and scenes promote positivity between both nations and provide a hope that we could establish better bilateral relations beyond traditional hate, animosity and unfaith and we should try for the same.

Cinema of Yash Chopra and India-Pakistan Relations

Pakistani director Iram Parveen Bilal said on the death of legendry Indian filmmaker Yash Chopra (21-10-12) that Yash Chopra was instrumental in bringing neighboring countries India and Pakistan together. Yash Chopra had a “soft corner for Pakistan”. Chopra’s movies were about love and helped film buffs of both the countries come closer. He was born in Lahore so he always had a soft corner for Pakistan” (oneindia.com). In his debut films Dhool Ka Phool (1959) and Dharmaputra (1961) Yash Chopra tried to convey the message that not only hereditary decides the nature and behavior of an individual but his/her environment play equal role. Male protagonists of film Dharmputra is son of a Muslim woman but is brought up in a Hindu family and latter on he become fanatic and hate Muslims. When he came to know that his mother is a Muslim that created very dilemmatic situation for both mother and son. Director Yash Chopra has presented relation between mother ‘Husn’ and her biological son ‘Dilip’ very effectively. As we know India and Pakistan have been at war, on and off, since 1947-the period of independence from colonial rule and violent partition from each other. In such conditions filmmakers like Yash Chopra through their cinematic style try to create an environment of peace and communal harmony to fulfill the purpose to curtail mutual enmity and develop meaningful relations on humanitarian ground.  Celebrated song of film Dharmputra, “tu Hindu banega na Musalman banega, insaan ki aulad hai insan banega”. This song is best example of humanitarian approach of Yash Chopra.

In the decade of 1990 when Babri Mosque was demolished and reactions were observed around the world along with Kashmir based terrorism, veteran director Yash Chopra provided space and chance such a way to a Muslim youth Shahrukh Khan that he became popular superstar.  Films like Darr, Dilwale Dulhania Dulhania Le Jayenge, Dil to Pagal Hai, Mohabbatein, Veer-Zaara, Chak De! India, Rab Ne Bana Di Jodi, Jab Tak Hai Jaan are just name a few successful films of Shahrukh Khan worked as Protagonist with Yashraj Films. If we evaluate the subjects and contents of his other films we get his progressive perspective. He launched many Muslim young directors and still they are working with Yashraj Camp, few of them are Shaad Ali (Saathiya2002, Bunty Aur Babli2005, Jhoom Barabar Jhoom200, Kill Dil2014), Kabir Khan (Kabul Express2006, New York2009, Ek Tha Tiger 2012), Shimit Amin (Chak De! India, Rocket Singh: Salesman of the Year), Ali Abbas Zafar (Mere Brother Ki Dulhan2011, Gunday2014, Sultan2016, Tiger Zinda Hai2017), Habib Faisal (Ishqzaade2012, Daawat-e-ishq2014, Qaidi Band2017). After the death of Yash Chopra his qualified son Aditya Chopra is continuing further his legacy of communal harmony. Films like Fanna (2006), Kabul Express (2006), New York (2009), Ek Tha tiger (2012), Tiger Zinda Hai (2017) were produced by Yashraj Films with content based on terrorism with different dimension.  When we discuss star cast of his films we find that he support agenda of communal harmony. Along with other stars his favorite actors are Shahrukh Khan, Firoz Khan, Parveen Bobby, Waheeda Rahman, Dilip Kumar, Farooq Sheikh, Sayra Bano, Ali Zafar, Saif Ali Khan, Aamir Khan, Salman Khan, Katrina Kaif. Gist of our argument is that Yash Chora himself and his production house always promote and celebrate composite culture of India and disseminate message of communal harmony through his cinema, composition of star cast and directors.

Veer-Zaara, New York and Tiger Zinda Hai like films have been promoting mutual relations on the basis of humanity and create an environment of friendship and dialogue between two rival nations. Conviction and murder of Sarabjit and recent conviction of Kulhushan Jadhav in Pakistan spoil the peace process. Imposing charges of terrorism and spying and consequently death sentence of both Indian citizens curtailed the chances of better relations. Coincidently, film Tiger Zinda Hai was released at the time when Pakistan permitted a meeting of Kulbhushan Jadhav and his mother and wife but that was highly objectionable and disappointing as Pakistan did not represent a good gesture of etiquette and diplomacy.  Indian as well as international media criticized ill mannerism of Pakistan in this context. It negatively affected feelings of Indians. Continuous violation of cease fire on L.O.C. and Pakistan sponsored infiltration brought relations of both the nations at worst level. At the beginning of 2018 we should think again for the betterment of bilateral relations through cultural media like films, theatre and music concerts along with cricket.

           Bollywood Songs and Indo-Pak Relations

Lahore(1949), Nastik (1954), Chhalia (1960), Dhool Ka Phool(1959), Dharamputra(1961), Garam Hawa (1973), Hindustan Ki Kasam(1973), Henna (1991), Sardar(1993), Mammo(1994), Naseem(1995), Border(1997), 1947 Earth(1998), Train To Pakistan(1998), Shaheed-e-Mohabbat Boota Singh(1999), Sarfarosh(1999), Hey Ram (2000), Refugee (2000), Gadar: Ek Prem Katha (2001), Pinjar(2003), L.O.C.Kargil(2003),  Veer-Zaara(2004), Bhag Milkha Bhag(2013), Filmistan(2013), Bajrangi Bhaijaan(2015), Ek Tha Tiger(2012), Sarabjeet(2016) Happy Bhag Jayegi(2016), Begum jaan(2017), Tiger Zinda Hai(2017) etc.

  1. Lahore

Do din ki zindgi hai ise youn guzar dein, ujdi hui ye pyar ki raahen sawar den (Lyricist Rajendra Krishan)

  1. Nastik

Dekh tere sansaar ki haalat kya ho gyi bhagwan, kitna badal gya insaan (lyricist-Kavi Pradip)

 

 

  1. Dharmputra is second directorial venture of Yash Chopra. The film dealt with issue of religious bigotry, bigotry, fanaticism, and communalism amidst the backdrop of the partition. Songs of this movie were written by renowned lyricist Sahir Ludhianvi, few of them are as following-
  2. Ye kiska lahu hai kaun mara, aye rehbar mulkon kaum bata

Ye jate hue ghar kiske hain, yeh katte hue tann kiske hain…

  1. Ye maszid hai wo butkhana, chahe ye mano chahe wo mano
  2. Tu Hindu banega naa Muslman banega, Insaan ki aulad hai insane banega.

 

  1. Mammo

 

Ye fasle teri galiyon ke hamse tay na hue

Hajar bar ruke hum, hajar bar chale

Na jane kaun si mitti vatan ki matti thi

Najar me dhool, jigar me liye gubar chale

Ye kaisi sarhaden, uljhi uljhi hain pairo mein

Hum apne ghar ki taraf uth ke bar bar chale

  1. Border

Jang to chand roj hoti hai, zindagi barson talak roti hai

Mere dushman mere bhai, mere hamsaye…hum kasam jung na hone paye aur us din ka rasta  dekhen jab khil uthe mera bhi chaman, tera bhi vatan mera bhi vatan…

Mere dost, mere bhai, mere hamsaye.

  1. Refugee

Panchi nadiya pawan ke jhonke, koi sarhad na unhe roke

Sarhad insaano ke liye hai, socho tumne aur maine kya paya insaan hoke.

  1. Veer-Zara

Aisa desh hai mera, dharti sunhari ambar neela

Har mausam rangeela, aisa desh hai mera…

 

Tere desh ko maine dekha tere desh ko maine jana

Jane kyun lagta hai mujhko jana pahchana

Wahi sham hai wahi savera,

Aisa hi desh hai mera jaisa desh hai tera.

  1. 1947 Earth

Raat ki daldal hai gadhi re

Dhadkan ki chale kaise gadi re.

  1. Pinjar

a.Vatna ve mereya vatna ve

Bant gaye tere aangan, bujh gaye chulhe sanjhe

Lut gayi teri heeren, mar gaye tere ranjhe, vatna ve, vatna ve…

 

  1. haath chute bhi to rishte nahi chhoota karte

wakt ki shakh se lamhe nahi toota karte…

 

  1. Filmistan

Uljhi uljhi gathe suljhi, kaisi hawa me gud gudi hai

Raaz ye hasi, aji bin baton ke, baat samjhte

Yahi mizaj dosti ke, aa lage zindagi ke gale.

  1. Begum Jaan

Who subah hum hi se aayegi

In kaali sadiyon ke sar se jab raat ka aanchal dhalkega

Jis subah ki khatir jug jugse hum sab mar ke jeete hain

Jis subah ki amrit ki dhun mein, hum zehar ke pyale peete hain

Maana ke abhi tere mere sapno ki kimat kuch bhi nahi

Mitti ka bhi hai kuch mol magar, insano ki keemat kuch bhi nahi

Insane ki izzat jab jhoothe sikko me tauli jayegi

Wo subah hum hi se aayegi.

 

  1. Tiger Zinda Hai

Swag se karenge sabka swagat

Chaahe jo leke aaye dil mein ishq mohabbat

Sabko gale lagana apne culture ki hai aadat

Milke chalta chal, masle karke hal,

behtar hoga kal, ye sabse kehate rahna.

 

All these songs scribed above explain that partition, communal hatred, cross border terrorism, frequent violation of cease fire and wars adversely affect both neighboring nations and their citizens. Borders are manmade differences for vested interests of few greedy and inhuman people but love, mutual faith and human relations are eternal and natural which we should believe on and promote.

Films of Lollywood (Pakistan)

The Lollywood is the oldest film industry of Pakistani cinema based in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. The word ‘Lollywood’ was coined in the summer of 1989 in Glamour magazine published from Karachi by gossip columnist Saleem Nasir. Pakistani cinema has played an important part in Pakistani culture. Over ten thousand Urdu feature-films have been produced in Pakistan since 1948 as well as over 8000 Punjabi, 6000 Pashto and 2000 Sindhi feature-length films. The first film ever produced was Husn ka Daku in 1930 by Abdur Rashid Kardar in Lahore. The first Pakistani film produced was Teri Yaad. We would like to give name of few Pakistani feature-films which transcend borders and audiences of both the countries appreciated and enjoyed its subject and way of presentation-

Teri Yaad (1948), Jaago Hua Savera(1959), Ramchand Pakistani (2008), Khamosh Pani (2003), Khuda Ke Liye (2008), Bol (2011), War(2013), Main Hun Shahid Afridi (2013),Karachi Se Lahore(2015), Manto (2015), Bin Roye (2015), Jawani fir Nahi Aani (2015).

Today when India-Pakistan bilateral relations are not good we could understand their perception and thinking about India only through the content analysis of Pakistani films. As harbinger of peace process Pakistani artists (actors, directors, lyricists, and singers) could help a lot between both nations. It is our duty to welcome and support them in our territory. When we explain above list of Pakistani films we come to know that ‘Teri Yaad’ was first film of Pakistan after partition in which Nasir Khan Brother of Dilip Kumar worked as hero.  Noted poet and Shayar Faiz Ahamad Faiz written film ‘Jago Hua savera’ which told the story of fishermen of Bangladesh was produced in 1959. This film was also nominated in best film in foreign language category in Oscar awards of 1960. Ramchand Pakistani is a joint venture film of Bollywood and Lollywood in which Indian and Pakistani actors, musicians worked together. Famous actress Nandita Das played the role of mother of protagonist Ramchand, a Dalit Pakistani boy. Inadvertently, he crossed the L.O.C. with his father Shankar and got arrested and sent to jail for committing illegal infiltration. After a long gap they got bail and reach to Champa (Nandita Das). This film show the chaotic and pathetic situations faced by Ramchand , his father Shankar and her mother Champa. Content and form of the film was appreciated by audience and critics alike in India and Pakistan simultaneously.

Pakistani filmmaker Sabiha Sumar’s film Khamosh Pani was produced by German and French collaboration, focused on the “Talibanization of Pakistan” during the reign of General Zia-Ul-Haq. Female protagonist widow Ayesha played of Bollywood actress Kiran Kher, resides in village with her son Salim. Salim  joined Islamist group and one day coincidently he came to know through a group Sikh pilgrims that his mother was a Sikh girl before partition and was abducted by a Muslim similarly like Puro of Pinjar. To hurt the honor and sentiments of enemy community, targeting their woman was regular practice during the period of partition. Purity and chastity of women is considered paramount priority till date. To safeguard their honor men killed their women to preserve their women but Ayesha (Veeran before partition) refused her father’s demand for martyrdom at the site of the village well and choose to live life on her own terms. Time is very strong and painful element of our life. Once so strong woman Ayesha loose her confidence when her own fanatic son disown her after learning about her Sikh identity. She cannot bear this loss of love of her son and the rest of the village people. She jumps into the same well to end her life, refused to jump into, 32 years ago. The silent waters of the well swallow her. The film narrates the issues of partition based on religious identity and its far-reaching repercussions. Both nations have been still fighting on same issues after more than seven decades.        

Khuda Ke Liye’ is a Pakistani film produced by Shoeb Mansoor. Nasiruddin Shah plays an important cameo role in this film.  Sarmad, friend of successful singer Mansoor of Lahore, left singing under the impact of Islamic activist Maulana Tahiri and starts living life according to Islamic ways of life.  Further in this film Mariyam, western stylish girls from Pakistani Muslim background loves a British boy Dave but her father oppose this relation who himself living in a relation of live-in with a British woman. They came back to Pakistan and her father marries Mariyam to Sarmad without her consent. She wants to run away but could not do so. Subsequently matter goes to the court. Court calls a Maulana to interpret legality of this disputed marriage according Islamic laws. In the short role of Maulana veteran Bollywood actor interprets meaning of Islamic marriage, importance of will of woman in Islamic marriage, practice of music and songs by Muslims in the light of holy Kuran and Hadish Sharif . Maulan Vali proves that song and music are not non-Islamic. In a marriage will of a woman is equally important like man and she could end a marriage if her husband is unable to discharge his duty to his wife. Cloths and outfits are not concern with essence of any religion. Beard is also not inevitable in Islam (deen me dhadhi hai, dhadhi me deen nahi hai). The role played by an Indian actor and his words used to interpret real meaning and essence of Islam are wonderful document to preserve and read repeatedly.

On the other side Mansoor went to America to pursue his higher studies in music where he coincidently put into the jail in the context of 9/11 terrorist attack because of his Pakistani Muslim identity. He tried to prove that he is not a terrorist instead he loves USA but nobody believe him. He writes ‘I love USA’ on the wall of jail but he receive inhuman treatment from American authorities, consequently he convert his sentence as ‘I love USAMA’. Yashraj camp’s Bollywood movie ‘NewYork’ tells same story that how Muslims of the world became suspicious after the 9/11 and became vulnerable because of their religious identity. In Bollywood film ‘My Name is Khan’ released during same period, one dialogue became very popular repeatedly pronounced by hero Shahrukh Khan “My Name is Khan and I am not a Terrorist”. Filmmakers of Bollywood and Lollywood through their films tried to interpret that people from a common religious and national background cannot be terrorists therefore we should behave logically and rationally.

The new generation of Pakistan which has not felt pain of partition, they want a new beginning with new subject in cinema. Bin Roye, Manto, Karachi se Lahore like films depict social and entertainment subject which reveal expanding horizon of thinking of Pakistani Filmmakers.

Joint Ventures of film Production

Dubey (2003) has written that “officially Bollywood films have been banned in Pakistani cinema halls and vice versa, for decades by successive governments due to the political sensitivities and on and off economic and cultural relations during war and peace between the two countries”. However, through piracy video routes and through cable and satellite means, Bollywood films have always been a part of Pakistani popular culture, amassing millions of audiences and followers. It has also been reported that Bollywood films have been shown ‘unofficially’ for a long time in cinemas in major Pakistani cities”.  Pakistani filmmakers travel to India to strengthen their network with Bollywood and hired Indian talent for their help in film production. New generation of filmmakers hailing from Pakistan are trying to shake hands to produce films as joint ventures. Noted sociologist Dudrah (2006:154) writes that “Some British Asians are also attempting to partake in celluloid diplomacy and contribute to the peace process between the two countries by funding and making films advocating the need for dialogue between India and Pakistan. In this respect, in the north of England, Huddersfield–based Afzal Khan’s Paragon Pictures, a British Registered Company, is keen to finance and make films that draw on film-making talents from both countries. He produced a film Larki Punjaban (Punjabi Girl, 2003) is a story of a Sikh-Muslim love affair that was reported as doing well at international box offices”. Partition (2007, dir. Vic Sarin) is a Canadian movie based on Indo-Pakistan partition in 1947. Content is about love story of a 38 year old Sikh man Gian Singh and a 17 years old Muslim girl Naseem. Indian actors Irrfan Khan, Arya Babbar, Madhur Jaffrey and Lakhwinder Singh worked in this international project. Bollywood and Lollywood filmmakers are continuously trying to come together for producing films as joint ventures, Khuda Ke Liye, Khamosh Pani (2003), Ramchand Pakistani, Nikaah (1982), Henna (1991), Raees, Ae Dil Hai Mushkil, Baby are best examples of this gesture.

Politics of Ban of Bollywood Films in Pakistan

As political and strategic relations go up and down both countries apply ban on films and other cultural products.  We have mentioned earlier that Bollywood films have been banned in Pakistani cinema halls and vice versa, for decades by successive governments due to the political sensitivities and on and off economic and cultural relations during war and peace between the two countries.

Bollywood films with contents like Pakistan sponsored terrorism and infiltration, intelligence and army support to terrorist groups, stereotyped depiction of Muslim as terrorist invite ban from Pakistani censor board, courts and governments. Kashmir issue, border dispute, use of slang language, domination over Pakistan, suicide bombers, sleeper cells, obscene, indulgence of Pakistani intelligence agency I.S.I. and army to sponsor terrorism in India, love relations between Muslim girls and Hindu or Sikh boys and love and marriage between Pakistani girl and Indian boy are completely unacceptable for Pakistani rulers. They imposed ban on Bollywood movies with such content. Beyond the politics of ban, it is a fact that people of Pakistan enjoy Bollywood films and music through internet and pirated C.Ds. and DVDs. Remember that character who sell pirated C.D. of Bollywood movie and scene of critically acclaimed movie Filmistan in which abducted protagonist Sunny speak all dialogues of film Maine Pyar Kiya when pirated C.D. lost the sound. All the villagers enjoy their favorite movie with the help of Sunny. The film spread the message that two factions realize that they share a human and cultural bond. The film shows how cinema can be the universal panacea for co-existence. We are giving a list of Bollywood films banned in Pakistan because of above mentioned reasons-

Tere Bin Laden(2010), Lahore(2010), The Dirty Picture(2011), Delhi Belly(2011), Khiladi 786 (2012), Ek Tha Tiger (2012), Agent Vinod (2012), Bhag Milkha Bhag (2013), Raanjhanaa(2013), Children of War (2014), Haider(2014), Calendar Girls (2015), Phantom(2015), Baby(2015), Bangistan(2015), Dishoom(2016), Udta Punjab (2016), Shivaay(2016), Ae Dil Hai Mushkil(2016), Neerja(2016), Ambarsariya (2016),  Dangal(2017), Naam Shabana(2017), Jolly LL.B. 2(2017), Raees(2017). Tiger Zinda Hai(2017), Padman(2018), Pari (2018).

Conclusion

Two nations India and Pakistan came into existence in 1947 and conflict remains one of the most enduring which began with their birth. They are fighting over issues like Kashmir, illegal infiltration, violation of cease fire, terrorism, water distribution and nuclear arms race. Akhtar writes “the unresolved disputes over a long period have given birth to deep-rooted mistrust and hostility between the two nations…under these circumstances where coercion and threat have the capacity to deteriorate further the relationships, numerous governments and civil society groups have provided an alternative platform to resolve issues peacefully…the phenomena of cultural diplomacy using the state’s culture in support of its foreign policy goals paved a way for the possibility of peaceful India-Pakistan relations” (2016:208). Here the role of films begins as cultural artifact to promote people to people contacts and improve bilateral relations.

Pakistan is an Islamic state and India is a secular one after its partition. Pakistan is an unstable state because of many ups and downs for instance over indulgence of army in civil and political administration. Dictatorship, army, terrorist and fundamentalist groups and I.S.I. determine major aspect of state of Pakistan which creates serious problems between both neighboring nations.  During partitions millions of families changed their native places on the basis of their religious identities.  Millions of people lost their lives because of communal violence. That hatred feeling still alive in the memories of affected people. Bollywood cinema has depicted these issues of partition, migration, relocation, and traumas faced by the victims of partition. Films like Gadar: Ek Prem Katha, Refugee, Sarfarosh are just name a few. Mission Kasmir, Yahaan, Fanna represented Kashmir issue as intricate and paradoxical image of being a bone of contention between India and Pakistan. Finally, Bollywood films started focusing on the political positioning of Muslims in India, interfaith marriage relations between Hindus and Indian and Pakistani Muslims (Roja, Bombay, veer-Zaara and Kurbaan). In this article we have focused on such movies which represent pleasant relations between India and Pakistan. This act of Bollywood filmmakers help to strengthen bilateral relations.

Among chaotic situations like violation of cease fire on border, uneasy bilateral political relations cross border terrorism, cultural organizations, human right activists, filmmakers, writers, poets and playwrights always try to save ray of hope between conscious people of both sides. B.R. Chopra, Yash Chopra, Raj Kapoor, Kabir, Khan like filmmakers produced films from partition till date instantly, promoting human relations instead of communalism, border and political differences. Recently released film “Tiger Zinda Hai” depict mutual understanding between intelligence teams of both countries which joint hands for a common cause to release their nurses From ISIS a terrorist group at foreign location that is Syria. After the success of their mission they hoist national flags of India and Pakistan altogether with mutual respect. Before starting their mission team members of intelligence of both sides, during their conversations mention that if Sachin and Afridi play together no country could defeat us in Cricket. Division weakens us it is a fact. We waste our time, money and energy in fighting always, if partition was not occurred we were a very strong nation undoubtedly. In Raj Kapoor’s Henna we see that female protagonist who is daughter of a Pakistani Muslim nomad keep strong faith in Hindu male protagonist and she sacrifice her life to send him back to India.  Similarly in Bajrangi Bhaijaan, Pawan Chaturvedi a Hindu man go to Pakistan to return a deaf and mute Muslim girl who coincidently departed from her parents at an Indian railway station journeying on Samjhauta Express between India and Pakistan. In this film the director has presented common people of both sides who live a normal life with their everyday activities. ‘Happy Bhag Jayegi’ is a very beautiful film with comic sense where commercial activities between Amritsar and Lahore are very common and both cities look similar. People live simple lives without any conspiracy and animosity. Aamir Khan Starrer PK depicts very beautiful love story between a Indian Hindu girl Jaggu and Pakistani Muslim Boy Sarfarj and it achieved huge success worldwide.

Gist of whole discussion is that human relations and values are more important than political issues, border disputes and meaningless hatred feelings. My elder brother resides in USA with his family for last four years. My sister-in-law and her son consult a Pakistani lady doctor during their illness. The doctor expresses her carefulness and affection to them and does conversation in Hindi language because of their Indian origin. Purpose of mentioning this personal family experience here is that in new locations beyond India and Pakistan, citizens of both nations correlate themselves with South-Asian identity which is based on our common language, wearing and overall commonness in culture. In the beginning of this paper we mentioned approach of a graduate student towards winning the cricket world cup. These two incidents and many others like this could help us to understand that we could exist and grow together in a friendly environment. Filmmakers of both neighboring countries are offering new pathways of better mutual relations through the content of their films time and again. They have also explained that wars are meaningless and never could solve any bilateral issues but create more complicated situations. After Kargil war human right activists of both countries Asma Jehangir and Noted Gandhian Nirmla Deshpande met at Bagha border and send a message that people are ready to welcome each other and they do not want war anymore. Asma Jehangir died in January 2018; this article is a tribute to her courage and humanitarian approach.

Pakistani writers like Reema Abbasi is writing a book entitled “Historic Temples in Pakistan: A Call to Conscience” published by an Indian Publisher Niyogi Books is a euphoric moment for citizens of both sides. The National Commission for Minorities of Pakistan protects the rights of minorities (Hindu, Sikh, Christians etc.) and reiterates the values of religious harmony, tolerance, respect, and peace. The Criminal Law (Protection of Minorities) Act 2016’ will put a check on forced conversion and other atrocities against minorities. First Hindu Dalit women Krishna Kumari Kohli get elected the member of the Senate of Pakistan since March 2018. Sania Mirza, Indian professional tennis player married to Pakistani cricketer Shoaib Malik and leading a successful married life for last eight years. These events and developments reveal positive gesture between India and Pakistan and provide a hope for better bilateral relations.

 

Reference

Akhtar, Zainab(2016)India-Pakisatn Relations: Efficacy of Culture, A.A.S. Sage Publication.

Chaube, Ajay K., Devasundaram, A.I. (2017) South Asian Diasporic Cinema and Theatre, Rawat Publication, New Delhi.

Dudrah, Rajindar K.(2006) Bollywood: Sociology Goes to the Movies, Sage Publication, New Delhi.

Jain, Jasbir & Rai, Sudha () Films and Feminism: Essays in Indian Cinema, Rawat Publications, Jaipur.

Mehta, Rini Bhattacharya. &Rajeshwari V. Pandharipande (2011) Bollywood and Globalization: Indian Popular Cinema, Nation and Diaspora.

Roy, Anjali Gera (2012) The Magic of Bollywood, Sage Publication, Delhi.

Scroll.in (Pakistan: Krishna Kumari Kohli becomes first Dalit woman to be elected to the Senate). 4 march 2018

oneindia.com (Yash Chopra’s films brought India, Pak closer: Pak filmmaker). 29 October 2012).

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