One Belt One Road (OBOR) is China’s ambitious and expansionary project announced by Chinese government led by President Xi Jinping in 2013, instantly after elected as a President of People’s Republic of China. This policy emphasized or designed to enhance connectivity and economic interaction between countries of the three continents including Asia, Europe and Africa. It has three dimensional Land, Sea and Air linkages to the Afro-Eurasian land masses. Through this policy (OBOR), China is trying to revive or re-establish the Silk Road Economic Belt and as well as 21st century Maritime Silk Route. According to the Chinese media or People’s Republic of China (PRC) this initiative will include five areas of connectivity including Policy, Infrastructure and facilities, Trade, Currency and People to people. OBOR is not a new concept or new initiative; it is only a revival of the old Silk Route or Road, which passes from China to Mediterranean world through vast land of Central Asia but comprehensive in scope.
OBOR is designed to achieve Chinese strategic and economic sphere of influence and it indication is to achieve regional and global influence but China denied this fact and said that it has only benign intention to achieve economic development through this massive infrastructure project. Both India and Japan rejected this project on several concerns. India has several concerns and primary and foremost one is related with China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC). This project is passing through Pakistan occupied Kashmir (Pok), which India considered that China is ignoring it’s the sovereignty and territorial integrity. It becomes geostrategic, geopolitical and geo-economics challenge for India to counter this project. Although historically India has developed bilaterally as well as multilaterally projects to counter it. Strategically, India has joined hands with major emerging power to counter Chinese influence in Indian Ocean.
History of the Silk Road
The Silk Road or Routes refers to a historic land routes from 2ndBC to the end of 14th Century AD through which goods, ideas and people were exchanged between region of Afro-Eurasia including India. It was originated from Chang’an now called Xian region of China in the east and passes through Central Asia to end at the Mediterranean Sea in the west. This route stretches from China through India, Asia Minor, throughout Mesopotamia, to Egypt (Africa) Greece, Rome and Britain. Historically, Silk Road linked China with the Roman Empire since antiquity. It takes name as Silk Road because Silk was the major product which traded on this road; it was named the Silk Road by Ferdinand von Richthofen 18771, a well known German geographer. This roads not only used for goods for trade but it also used for exchange for ideas, religion, philosophy, art and culture, science and technology and other elements of civilizations along with commercial goods among India, China, Persia, Arabia, Greek and Rome, this route was opened or formerly established by Zhang Qian in the western Han dynasty2 (202 BCE-220 CE). It flourished under the most of the Chinese Dynasty and mostly under the Tang Dynasty of China (618-907) reached its on peak, which saw a rapid development of economic, civilization and society.
The term Silk Roads some time extended to include sea routes that linked Indian subcontinents, African sea ports, Mediterranean Sea, South East Asia and China. Old Great Games, which is a historical game between Britain and Russian Empire fight and contest for influence in the Eurasian land mass basically in Central Asia in 19th century, generated much interest in the Silk Road among governments, diplomats and scholars.
It is a fact that since 2nd BC to the end of 14th Century Silk Road has played a crucial role in the field trade as well as exchange of ideas, religion, art and culture and lots among the countries of three continents. The sign or trade decline on the road started after the end of Tang Dynasty in China. However, after the disintegration of Mongol Empire the significance of Silk Road lost its essence. There had been several factors which led to decline the importance of this road including European curiosity to search alternative route for trade with Asian countries, the speed of the sea transportation, the possibility to carry more goods, relative cheapness of transportation also resulted in the decline of the Silk Road in the end of the 15th century3.
The New Silk Road
As like Ancient Silk Road United State of America announced to construct or revive an ancient Silk Road which is known as New Silk Road. It was first announced by then Secretary of State Hillary Clinton in July, 2011 in a foreign policy speech in a Chennai, India. In this speech she pointed out that “historically, the nations of south and Central Asia were connected to each other and rest of the continent by a sprawling trading network called the Silk Road.”4However, after this speech, USA branded its efforts and enhance India’s influence, drive to economic integration and established peace and security in the region and development in Afghanistan and in Central Asian Republics, with a slogan based on historical imagination given by Marc Grossman, then the USA special representative for Afghanistan and Pakistan: “Let’s work together to create a new silk road”5. Clinton approach to revive Silk Road was based on to improve Afghanistan economic and security structure and play a major role in Central Asia, which has been dominated by China and Russia. After the announced by then secretary of state Hillary Clinton, it was felt that it will create a strategic competition with Chinese who were dominated in Central Asia and exactly after the span of two years in 2013 Chinese President Xi Jinping announced own concept or vision of Silk Road. According to one Chinese Diplomat, “When the initiated this, we were devastated. We had long sleepless nights. And after two years, President Xi proposed a strategic vision of our new concept of Silk Road”6.
However, both China and USA has different concept, expectation and intention for a New Silk Road strategy. The Chinese concept revolved around economic possibilities and the USA is more concerned with political and security aspects. Chinese concept of New Silk Road also called Grate Silk Road focused or emphasized on trade links with Central Asia, Russia, Arabia, and European countries and in some extent it is also trying to counter the USA and Japan policy in that region with which China has historical connections. Chinese New Silk Road project has limited scope and to extend and increase the scope of this project Chinese President unveiled a new geo-economic strategy, what she called as One Belt One Road (OBOR). It is also known as Belt and Road (BRI or B&R) initiative, where as “One Belt” refers to the Silk Road (land based) and the “One Road” refers to 21st century “Maritime Silk Road.”
ONE BELT ONE ROAD: AN ANALYTICAL OVERVIEW
New Silk Road strategy got momentum when the Chinese President Xi Jinping announced massive and multi trillion USD dollar project in 2013. Simultaneously Xi Jinping announced several project under the umbrella of One Belt One Road or Belt and Road initiative, comprising of the Land-Based “Silk Road Economic Belt” and “Maritime Silk Road of the 21st Century. Maritime Silk Road project was later announced by Xi in Indonesia in October 2014. Road’ basically rejuvenated of the old Silk Road and comprising two dimension first is maritime route from China to Europe through south China sea and Indian ocean and second one that connect China to the Pacific Island passes from the south China sea to the Southern Pacific ocean. The ‘Belt’ refers to three overland routes originating from China, first from China through South East Asia and South Asia to the Indian Ocean, second starting from China through Central Asia and West Asia to the Persian Gulf and the Mediterranean Sea, third from China through Central Asia to Russia and Europe. These all the three routes starting from China and involves the creation of six economic corridors involving 25 different countries.
Maritime Silk Road project will starches from the Fuzhou Changle international airport in the capital city of Fujian province, China via Kuala Lumpur, Jakarta, Colombo, Kolkata (although India is not part of it) to Nairobi (Kenya). Then it will link to Mediterranean Sea port of Athens to Venice in Italy (Europe).
It is opined that the project will establish direct road and rail connectivity or corridors between East Asia and European countries; in addition it will also link sea port between China, South Asia, Coastal Africa, the Middle East and Europe. According to the Chinese government Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) will link or it will improve the connectivity and cooperation among the countries who participated in it. It involves 68 countries including all the South Asian countries except India and Bhutan (Bhutan has no diplomatic relation with China). According to the Chinese government its plan to invest Chinese economic and intellectual capital into the Eurasian region, in an effort to build infrastructure and production hubs that will benefit both China and host nations.7
OBOR project is China’s ambitious and dream project where China will invest USD 1 trillion.8 China unveil this project in Belt and Road Forum for international cooperation in 14-15 May, 2017. The conference was attended by more than 1,500 from more than 130 countries and 30 Head of State or world leaders. According to Xi, during the course of the forum a total of 68 countries and international organizations signed agreements on furthering the Belt and Road concept.9In an address at the forum’s opening ceremony, Xi said his nation would foster a “new type of international relations” based on mutual cooperation, coexistence and co-prosperity. In the Forum Summit Chinese President Xi in his speech talked about several areas of emphasis for the Belt and Road initiative including industrial development, financial integration and reforms and infrastructure and construction is a key areas. Xi also stressed the need for “innovation driven development” calling for “cooperation in frontier areas such as digital economy, artificial intelligence, nanotechnology and quantum computing, the development of big data, cloud computing, and smart cities.”10
After the event of forum summit it creates a lot of curiosity among the group of diplomat, academician and political analyst and strategist to further understand the real motive of China behind this project. It was realized that China unveils this project to achieve geopolitical and geostrategic objective in that regions and increase Chinese sphere of influences. It will improve China dominant position or power in Eurasia. China has been arguing that it is purely benign economic and diplomatic objective and will benefit both China and adjoining nations. Apart from economic aspects it has also significance for diplomatic windfall. As Premier Li Keqiang commented, the OBOR policy was developed not only to boost economic growth, but also to “deepen international cooperation and promote world peace” through sustained bilateral investment and the economic interdependence it producec.11While Chinese government insisted that this policy or strategy is purely focused on benign economic and diplomatic purposes, but it may have questioned about real motive behind the project because it seems that strategy will help China to achieve geopolitical and geostrategic ambitions. China has bigger and long term interest in this region. It strives to achieve it through their robust economic diplomacy as it is the most unpredictable country in the world and emerging faster than other countries in the terms of economics; military power that challenging the status quo of the USA in international arena. As mentioned above in the forum’s opening ceremony Xi said that his nation would foster a “new type of international relations” based on mutual cooperation, coexistence and co-prosperity, which indicate that they will try to keep away America from this region and will redefine the international law related with trade and cooperation which is dominated by The United State of America since after the demise of USSR in 1991.This project gives China a boost to implement her hegemonic power and leadership in that region and further around the world.
It is also a question among the scholars that why China led down this massive 1 trillion USD worth project. However, some scholars pointed out about their internal economic structure and let down some specific reasons behind this project such as Chinese economy is heading towards implosion and China has over invested in manufacturing sector in internal market and it needs to find a new market for its surplus goods. It also seems that China’s economy consistently is slowing down for past few years. Chinese industries are suffering from over capacity which is mentioned in a report published by the European Chamber of Commerce in China. It addressed the problems arising from increased overcapacity in China’s industrial economy.12 Chinese products in steel, aluminum, and cement is in surplus but at the same time there is decline in global and domestic demands for these products. And most important is that growing regional protectionism policy in the economic field and to take challenges from India. China led down this project to boost their domestic economy.
One Belt One Road has great opportunity to boost infrastructure development in that region and focused on regional cooperation. It has also enormous challenges such as many countries in the OBOR project prone to political instability and terrorism for instance Pakistan, Afghanistan, Central Asia and African countries. It is also said that high scale corruption and economic instability in Central Asia and African countries create more challenges for China and for this there is no risk reversal mechanism to cop this situations.
Growing mistrust about Chinese Policy in the world raised the questioned about the real motive of this project. It creates big challenge for China, for example, a report on CPEC published by Pakistani media the Dawn, a Karachi based newspaper raised several questions in Pakistan about the real price of doing business with China. Syed Tahir Hussain Mashhadi, a Pakistani senator, compared it with the East India Company, the British company which had a colonized Indian subcontinent for centuries. “They made railways which still exist in India and Pakistan,” Mr. Mashhadi mentioned. But the company is now “despised because they stole the wealth while they were here.”Similarly, the proposed China-Pakistan Economic Corridor, is “very one sided,” he wrote, “Its Chinese investments and Chinese banks, Chinese money, Chinese industry- everything is towards China. And, of course, the profits go to China”.13
OBOR Project and India’s Concern and Balancing Act
India did not attend OBOR summit held in 14-15 May in China because it’s several concerns on this project. India’s first and foremost concern is regarding China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC), which came later in the media. CPEC will move through Pakistan occupied Kashmir (Pok) which is disputed territory between India and Pakistan and China did not concerned about the sovereignty and territorial integrity of India. Protest were raised on several occasioned when China and Pakistan agreed signed first mega infrastructure development project since 2008. Thereafter, Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi, Foreign Minister Sushma Swaraj, National Security Advisor (NSA) Ajit Doval and Foreign Security S. Jaishanker have raised India’s concerns about CPEC with Chinese leadership on numerous occasions since 2014.14 India’s another concern about this project is that it perceives the OBOR as a unilateral initiative persuaded by China where as it believes in multi-lateral approach to building trust and confidence in that regions. The third reason is that India has grave concern over the stability of the participant’s countries to pay back the larger loans that are being given by China. The fourth reason is that Chinese did not consider the sovereignty and territorial integrity of several countries because of that project stretching from several disputed territory in the region. India’s stand is that all parties must agree on the developmental or construction process through a consultative process and not as a follow-up to an arbitrary decision.
In spite of several concerns on OBOR project by India, one question which creates a buzz among the intellectuals, academician, diplomats and research scholars is that should India join this project or reject and counter by to develop their own development and infrastructure project? However, along with several concerned as India raise about OBOR, there is advantage as well for India to joining OBOR project. Among the advantage some political analysts believe that it will provide win-win situation for India as it focus on connectivity and infrastructure development through this India can easily access most of the region which India facing in field of connectivity. For instance, India can access Central Asian market easily. OBOR initiative focuses mostly on the issues of regional connectivity, energy, infrastructure and blue economy, which will benefits for India. If India is not going to join OBOR it will be isolated because all of the India’s neighboring countries (except Bhutan) joined and it will hamper for India to become regional and key player in the region. Some analysts also believe that countries like Russia and other members who are reluctant to join wanted India to join OBOR to as a counter balance Chinese influence.
Like India, Japan also did not attend One Belt One Road Forum, which was held on 14th to 15th May, 2017 led by China to launch a framework of massive OBOR project initiative. OBOR project presented immense and strategic influence of China in Central Asia as well as South Asia, and Africa. It is design to achieve China’s expansionist policy as opined by first Prime Minister of India Jawaharlal Nehru about Chinese expansionist policy is that “A strong China has always been an expansionist China”.15Chinese move and policy regarding South China Sea and East China Sea are real and apparent example of the Chinese expansionist policy. Therefore, it is a move on economic diplomacy to gain strategic influence in the regions, hence create a strategic competition in the region mostly with India and Japan, which ignores or rejected the Chinese, led OBOR. Chinese OBOR project which include a number of small project forced Indian governments and diplomats to reconsider its strategy and diplomacy in the South Asian region and Indian oceans. India has already facing challenges to cop out Chinese string of pearls policy that encircling India in the Indian Ocean region through building a port in Sri Lanka(Hambantota port) in Pakistan (Gwadar port)as part of Chinese ‘string of pearls’ policy. But through this one belt one road strategy or project, China not only encircling India but also encircles the world. China since long time tried to become a superpower and gradually challenged the USA policy in South Asia and South East Asia as well as around the world. Through this strategy China has intention to keep away India from this region, which is probably one of the biggest challenge and creating obstacle for China to become a regional player in Indian Ocean.
However, India refused to join OBOR and it started its own several development initiatives bilaterally as well as multilaterally. In fact whatever Indian government is doing in the field of connectivity, infrastructure development in the Indian Ocean and South East Asian region is seen as counterbalance of Chinese influence or in the prism of geopolitics. Although, Indian government started quite a lot of Land base, maritime and naval base project in these regions. For instance, project Mausam India’s maritime initiative which is based to promote India’s culture and history in South Asian region (India’s soft power diplomacy). Project Mausam is Narendra Modi’s most significant foreign policy strategy, concerning the cultural and historical links with India’s maritime neighbors and design to counter Chinese Maritime Silk Road project. In spite of cultural dimension, it has also a strategic dimension according to the Times of India.16 The project mausam is supposed to have both cultural and serious strategic dimension.18India also taken an initiative towards Blue Revolution through much awaited Sagarmala project. Sagarmala project is initiated by Government of India (GoI) with prime objective to promote port led direct and indirect development and provide infrastructure to transport goods to and from ports quickly, efficiently and cost-effectively.17 India is also developing Naval cooperation or port in India Ocean region, for instance developing Naval port at Seychelles, Madagascar and Mauritius. Apart from these projects, India also expedites South Asian Sub Regional Economic Cooperation (SASEC) project which will connect around sixty countries across Asia, Africa, and Europe. Recently in July, 2017, Indian government sanction and approved by Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs,Rs1,630 crores road project for up gradation and widening of the 65-km road stretch between Imphal in Indian states of Manipur and Moreh in part of Myanmar.18 This road project is a part of SASEC strategy or project. SASEC project started by group of seven countries including India, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Maldives and Myanmar, formed in 2001. It is a road connectivity program throughout South and South East Asia, being developed by with the loan assistance of Asian Development Bank. Once completed, it will strength the connectivity and infrastructure development in the region and will push forward India’s Look East Policy, which is now turned as Look Act Policy towards South East Asian nations. These projects will provide facilities and strengthen trade and economic cooperation, bring prosperity and will better quality of life for the people ofsub-regions.19It will also provide regional cooperation and integration between sub-regions countries. This project includes several highway and road connectivity project. It is also focusing on infrastructure development in the field of energy and attracts people in tourism sector particularly in Maldives. This project will also play an important role in the Great Asian Highway.
This project is strategically important for India in the sub-region and will improve India’s position in the global politics and economic development. It is also considered India’s counterbalance project on the backdrop of Chinese Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), which recently India embarked to upgrade and widening the project.
India is also countering Chinese BRI projects with the help of Japan and USA and other countries with different approaches and strategies. However, Japan along with India is also trying to counter Chinese expansionist policies in the regions, East China Sea as well as South China Sea and South Asian regions. But Japan is following dual strategy about this project. On one hand it gives signal to join and take advantage of Chinese led BRI project and on the other hand joining hand with India and USA to counter it. This situation created a puzzle among the international scholars. As evident, in view of the new trade and investment opportunities opening up in the BRI zone, including Central Asia, the Japanese Chamber of Commerce and Industry has set up a liaison office in China. Prime Minister of Japan Shinzo Abe has already flagged his interest in the BRI, provided the plan follows the rules of transparency and fairness.20Although on other side, it is opined that to counter Chinese grand strategy, India with Japan unveiled the most important vision document for Asia Africa Growth Corridor (AAGC) project at the African Development Bank meeting in Ahmadabad Gujarat (India) held on 22-26 May, 2017 a part of their annual meeting. It was 52nd Annual Meetings of the African Development Bank, (Note- India Became a member of AfDB in 1983). This is the first time that the Annual Meeting of AfDB was held in India.21These meetings was as strategically important in terms of China One Belt One Road initiative as African countries are also part of this project. In the sidelines of the meeting India and Japan launched the AAGC project a vision document for cooperation called as quality infrastructure and economic development with the region. The aims of this joint vision document of Prime Minister Narendra Modi and his Japanese counterpart Shinzo Abe is for Indo-Japanese collaboration to develop quality infrastructure in Africa, complemented by digital connectivity. AAGC is based on India’s decades old goodwill in Africa and Japan’s financial resources, aims to be an efficient and sustainable mechanism for linking economies, industries and institutions, ideas and people among, and between Africa and Asia in an inclusive fashion.
AAGC would consists four important elements as document mentioned including Development and cooperation projects, Quality infrastructure and institutional connectivity, capacity and skill development and people-to-people partnership. These four areas or elements are complementary to growth and development in the continents, as the vision document mentioned. AAGC project is part of Indo-Pacific freedom corridor or Indo-Pacific economic corridor led by India and Japan stretching from Asia Pacific to Africa, considered as counterbalancing of China’s OBOR initiative. It is aimed at ensuring regional stability and transparency in building cross-continental partnership, which lacks in Chinese led OBOR project. Under the India and Japan economic connectivity program both countries agree to develop and enhance the quality infrastructure with African countries. Japan is also likely to develop strategically located Trincomalee port on north-east coast of Sri Lanka, where India is building oil storage facilities. India and Japan may also join to develop Dawei port along the Thai-Myanmar border.22
These projects along with AAGC are considered as a sharp contrast with China’s policy in Indo-pacific region. It is also seen as both the countries are trying to push back China’s OBOR project. After AAGC was led down by both countries India and Japan; China becomes alert and caution about it, but it was also welcomed as Chinese daily indicates. According to the Global Times state-run newspaper in China, AAGC essentially a maritime corridor, was seen by some as a counterbalance to the Belt and Road initiative. It is also said that “The new venture, jointly led by India and Japan – two countries that have so far opted not to join the B&R initiative- sets out a vision for the better integration of South Asia, South East Asia, and East Asia with Africa and Oceania,” it said. The Global Times said that the India-Japan vision indicates an overlap between the AAGC and Belt and Road project “and invites controversy over the actual intentions behind the growth corridor.”23
Despite sending their delegates to attend OBOR summit in China, USA is also worry about Chinese geostrategic intention in Asia. To counter Chinese expansionist tendencies and constraint it to become hegemonic power in Asia is becoming a challenge for America’s hegemonic power. America is searching for new ally in Asia and considered India as a suitable state to contain China and playing proactive role in this regard. India has a capability to push back China to become regional as well as global players. India and America are working towards it through America led New Silk Road strategy which is seen as a counter balance of Chinese One Belt One Road initiative. USA and India is going to revive its ambitious project in South and South East Asia. The Trump administration has resuscitated the “New Silk Road” initiative and the Indo-Pacific Economic Corridor linking South and Southeast Asia. India will play a significant role in both projects. These two projects led by USA has more strategic and security ambitions than economic. India can also achieve their strategic objectives through these projects which has similar concerned with USA to counter Chinese policy around the region. These projects will also help India to strengthen their relation with Central Asian countries.
Russia also sends their officials to attend OBOR summit in China and has positive view on China led OBOR project. “I hope that it has paved the way for a new stage of cooperation in Eurasia,” a statement by President Vladimir Putin, adding, “I have no doubt that we will work together to benefit both the Chinese and Russian peoples.”24In fact, Russia has nothing to do with China in this project despite that the OBOR “belt” of proposed rail and pipeline networks in former Soviet states crisscrosses Central Asia and spans Belarus and Ukraine, links in Russia appear mostly limited to its southern periphery, along with Moscow and St.Petersburg and new pipelines to Kazan and Irkutsk. Russia is in bandwagon situation with China in the former Soviet Union region because Russia needs to cooperation with China to counter America’s strategy around the world. But, according to the expert Moscow is also sensitive to growing Chinese presence in Russia’s far-eastern region particularly increasing population from China. Russia fears that this pattern could change demographics of this region. The growing presence of other countries including India will help to bring balance. For this purpose, India has joined hands with Russia and proposed its massive maritime connectivity project which will connect Chennai and Vladivostok, a direct shipping link between Chennai and Vladivostok in Russia and consider as countering China’s ambitious Maritime Silk Road as part of OBOR initiative. This proposed shipping link would enable to transfer cargo between China and Vladivostok in 24 days in comparison to over 40 days currently taken to transport goods from India to Far East Russia via Europe.25
This maritime connectivity project aims to exploit energy resources from Northeast Asia and Western Pacific region.
Russia is also part of India’s geostrategic initiative and consider as India’s answer to OBOR project, International North South Transport Corridor (INSTC) project which connects Central Asia and Russia. It is a 7,200 kilometer-long proposed multi model (ship, rail and road) transportation system connecting the Indian Ocean and Persian Gulf to the Caspian Sea via the Iran, from where it connects St Petersburg, Russia, and North Europe.26the project initiated by Russia, Iran and India in September 2001, in St.Petersburg, and the agreement was signed on 16th May, 2002. initially started by Russia, Iran and India but now it is join by several members including Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Armenia, Belarus, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Oman, Syria, Turkey, Ukraine, and Bulgaria (observer).
The OBOR project with later changed its name as Belt and Road initiative is a massive and strategically important project initiative led down by Chinese government to connect three continents through Road, Rail and maritime. This multi-billion or trillion initiative creates an intense security and strategic implications in this region for India and other countries that did not join the project like Japan. India did not join this project because its concern on sovereignty about CPEC which link Pakistan with China through Pakistan occupied Kashmir (Pok), that is a disputed territory between India and Pakistan. To counter China’s Belt and Road initiative, India and Japan joins hand with each other and issues a vision document in May 2017 known as Asia-Africa Growth Corridor a part of Indo-Japan Pacific Economic Freedom Corridor. Apart from these projects with Japan, India also needs to take a proactive role with neighboring countries which is also part of Chinese project. India has a potentiality to play a proactive role and to build several projects in the matter of infrastructure development but it only needs to focus and give momentum to this project. For instance, North South Transport Corridor (NSTC) is multi-million networks of ship, rail, road corridor with Iran and Russia. India is also developing Chabahar port in Iran which is strategically important for India to connect to Central Asia. India has also announced a project Mausam by which it is using its history, culture and geography to compete with China Maritime Silk Road. Hence, India has had several projects towards connectivity with Eurasian and African region but it need to focus and develop on fast track basis that needs a proactive approach.
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