by Mir Hassan 2 July 2023
Once Craig Kielburger (Canadian human rights activist) said “Child labour is an issue of grave importance. It must become a top priority for all governments of the world. How can the world move into the twenty-first century with children still being exploited for their labour and denied their basic right to an education?” Child labor refers to the employment or engagement of children in work that is detrimental to their physical or mental development and interferes with their ability to attend regular schooling. It involves the participation of children in activities that are often exploitative, hazardous, or inappropriate for their age, robbing them of their childhood and hindering their opportunities for a better future.
Child labor can take various forms, including: Economic exploitation; Children are engaged in work to contribute to the family income or to support themselves financially. They may work in agriculture, manufacturing, construction, domestic service, street vending, or other informal sectors. Hazardous labor; Children are involved in work that exposes them to dangerous conditions, including working with heavy machinery, handling harmful substances, or being exposed to extreme temperatures. Bonded labor; Children are trapped in a cycle of debt or bondage, where they are forced to work to repay a debt, often passed on from one generation to another. Trafficking; Children are subjected to trafficking for labor purposes, such as domestic work, agriculture, mining, or the sex industry. Informal or hidden work; Children are engaged in work that is unregulated and often invisible, making it challenging to identify and address.
Child labor is a violation of children’s rights, as it deprives them of their right to education, health, and a safe and nurturing environment. It compromises their physical and mental well-being, exposes them to exploitation and abuse, and limits their opportunities for personal growth and development. Child labor remains a significant issue in Pakistan, despite efforts to combat it. Several key issues contribute to the prevalence and persistence of child labor in the country: Poverty; Widespread poverty and economic inequality force families to rely on the income generated by their children. Many families, especially in rural areas, are unable to meet their basic needs, leading to the engagement of children in labor to supplement household income. Lack of education; Pakistan faces challenges in providing quality education to all children. Limited access to schools, inadequate infrastructure, and low literacy rates contribute to the high dropout rates, particularly among disadvantaged communities. This lack of education opportunities pushes children into the labor market. Weak enforcement of labor laws; although Pakistan has laws in place to protect children from exploitation, there are gaps in their implementation and enforcement. Inadequate monitoring and weak penalties for violators enable employers to exploit child labor without facing significant consequences. Informal and hazardous sectors; Child labor is prevalent in sectors such as agriculture, domestic work, brick kilns, carpet weaving, and small-scale manufacturing, where working conditions are often hazardous, unregulated, and exploitative. Children are exposed to physical risks, long working hours, and low wages. Gender disparities; Girls in Pakistan are particularly vulnerable to child labor. Traditional gender roles, cultural norms, and discrimination limit their access to education and push them into domestic work, often in exploitative conditions. Social attitudes and cultural norms; Deep-rooted societal attitudes and cultural norms sometimes normalize child labor and fail to recognize the harmful consequences it has on children’s development and well-being.
Overcoming child labor in Pakistan requires a concerted effort from multiple stakeholders and a comprehensive approach that addresses the root causes of the issue. Here are some key strategies that can help in combating child labor:
- Strengthening Legislation and Enforcement:
- Strengthen and enforce existing labor laws related to child labor, ensuring they are in line with international standards.
- Increase penalties and consequences for employers who exploit child labor.
- Establish mechanisms for regular monitoring, inspection, and reporting of child labor violations.
- Improve coordination between government agencies, law enforcement, and judiciary to effectively enforce child labor laws.
- Promoting Access to Quality Education:
- Increase investment in education, with a focus on improving access, infrastructure, and quality of schools, especially in rural areas.
- Remove barriers to education, such as school fees, transportation issues, and gender-based discrimination.
- Implement programs to increase school enrollment and reduce dropout rates.
- Provide vocational and skill development training to enhance future employability.
- Poverty Alleviation and Social Protection:
- Implement comprehensive poverty alleviation programs to address the underlying economic factors that drive families to engage their children in labor.
- Provide financial support, livelihood opportunities, and skill training to parents and caregivers.
- Enhance access to social protection measures, including healthcare, nutrition, and other support services for vulnerable families.
- Awareness and Advocacy:
- Conduct awareness campaigns to educate communities, parents, employers, and children about the negative consequences of child labor.
- Promote child rights and create a culture of child protection through community engagement and sensitization programs.
- Involve religious and community leaders, civil society organizations, and media in advocating against child labor.
- Monitoring and Data Collection:
- Develop and maintain a robust system for monitoring child labor, including data collection, research, and analysis.
- Regularly assess the prevalence, trends, and sectors where child labor is prevalent to inform targeted interventions.
- Share information and collaborate with international organizations, NGOs, and research institutions for knowledge-sharing and best practices.
- Collaboration and International Support:
- Collaborate with international organizations, such as the International Labour Organization (ILO), for technical support, capacity building, and sharing best practices.
- Engage in partnerships with NGOs, civil society organizations, and businesses to promote responsible supply chains and discourage the use of child labor.
- Seek international assistance in implementing effective strategies and programs to address child labor.
It’s important to note that overcoming child labor in Pakistan is a complex and long-term process. It requires a sustained commitment from the government, civil society, communities, and individuals to protect children’s rights, promote education, alleviate poverty, and create an environment where children can grow and thrive.